The Arumugam group investigates integrative processes in a living cell that are central to life. We use concepts in physics to frame mechanisms that go beyond lack of clarity that is inherently associated with decribing a protein’s activity as ‘regulation’ . Our hypothesis building excercises are found on observations and quantitation of biological events (preferrably unperturbed) at high spatio-temporal measurements using cutting-edge and appropriate microscopy techniques. Our current focus is on endosomal network, the transport system of the cell, that also plays an important role in signal interpretation . A concept we have been exploring in the lab is that of time-keeping of processes in the cells. What molecular mechanisms set the rate of endosomal maturation, a process defined by the localization of specific ‘marker proteins’ that defines the local biochemistry. What are the first passage times for the receptor arrival? What are the implications of time-keeping in interpreting a signal (e.g. a ligand pulse in time) for the cell? What mechanisms operate to distinguish distinct ligand concentrations?